In this humble attempt at describing my Mother, I will be unashamedly subjective and clearly biased. I cannot but be otherwise because no one in my growing years nurtured and encouraged me more. Nor has there been anyone who affirmed me in my early adult years like Mom. What I owe her is incalculable. I know about some of her faults and weaknesses, but they seem minuscule to me because her positive influence on my life and direction for my life overshadows any of those.

Influence. Is it because of her direct input, verbally, that guided my life? No question, there was impact from that source. When I entered puberty, it was Mom I would go to, to have questions answered that I dared not ask anyone else. In the last years of high school in the evenings, because Dad got up early and worked hard and therefore got to bed by 9:00 p.m., Mom and I spent many of those evenings talking. I got to hear her heart and discover some of her persistent interests. She commented about my hair at one time, saying that she thought I had good looking hair. I recall, after I attended Bible College and university, that she bought me a little wooden rectangle that had the word “BRAIN” painted on it. I was a little embarrassed by this gift but on the other hand it told me that Mom saw potential in me. She believed in me.

More influence. Is it because I am genetically a part of Mom that I have some of the same interests and tendencies? Observation can leave a powerful impression on a child, too. In this case I believe that her interests in music, art and reading likely were passed on by genes. It is hard to explain my inward drive any other way. What I know of her music ability is that she loved good music. She had a reputation from her teen years as having a rich alto voice which she used in choirs and as a soloist. All of us children had some musical ability. Her artistic bent probably found expression mostly in crafts. She especially loved pottery, I remember. Her strongest drive in the arts was her love for literature. What seems amazing is that she would read anything, classical literature and popular magazines, always having several things going: magazines on the living room table, a book on the sewing machine or on the dining room table, or a pamphlet at her bedside. Almost all of it was fiction. Where she got a hold of Dickens and Dostoevski I don’t know, but those names were quite familiar to her.

I theorize that Mom was driven to all that fiction reading to be able to keep her very active mind alive and stimulated when her surroundings and daily activities were no challenge to a spirit that loved to do some soaring.

Her life is an example of one who found avenues for pursuits and personal growth when circumstances dictated otherwise. She, inwardly, must have had a very different approach to life than Dad. The hardworking, pioneering spirit of that generation of Mennonites required everybody in the household to contribute with much energy and time just to make a living. So, too, for Mother. Raising seven children, washing, ironing, cooking, cleaning, gardening, keeping the children clothed, at times even stuking in the fields, or milking cows, did not leave much energy or time for personal projects. This is what amazes me. Mom found time to read. That interest never left her. Dad, I believe, was pretty much consumed with the practicalities of life. He threw himself into those with gusto. Mom, on the other hand, took a few minutes here and there to nurture the inner spirit. Life, for her, had more in it than food, shelter and warmth. She lived out the Bible passage about being content with such things as you have. Competing for the visible to impress others was not her thing. She may even have had a touch of the artist personality, which traditionally implies living in a dream world and forgetting about the nitty-gritty of life. She did what had to be done. I never noticed great concern that everything in the house had to be spotless or exactly coordinated. Life was busy enough and complex enough without such perfectionist, time-consuming goals.

I need to say a few more things about Mom’s nature. Aunt Helen, her sister said about Mom that she was always up-beat and happy. And aunt Helen probably would have noticed that, since she tended to be the opposite. “Still waters flow deep,” and I would add, “serenely,” as well. Mom’s struggles, whatever they were, seldom became public knowledge; inner struggles, I mean. She appeared to be at peace with herself, with the world and with the Lord. She felt badly about being overweight, but other than that Mom presented herself as self-confident. Her faith had depth, was real, vital, but had no element of brazenness or pushiness. It became evident especially in how she treated people. There was no bias toward anyone, neither in age or race, as far as I could determine. Care and love was her natural response to needs. She loved to visit with people. Communication came naturally to her. She made everyone feel at ease. And further, I see myself as very fortunate to have had a Mother who knew how to live by the cherished values of the past (biblical) but who was not in bondage to traditions which so often cloud the truth of the scriptures. That might explain, also, why she was non-judgmental. She respected people for who they were. Her personal transparency contributed to many women being comfortable with her.

Although Mom’s inner life was seldom evident, her health problems were all too obvious. She suffered much pain and discomfort. Exactly the order in which the disabling conditions came on her I don’t know. In Rosemary, she began to have an expanding neck. This, of course, was a goiter problem. There were numerous trips to Bossano to see the doctor. To me, it seemed like a long time before the right medication was prescribed after which she recovered quickly. Then there was her excruciating encounter with arthritis. The pain she endured could not be hidden. Her fingers and wrists were partially disfigured. She took many aspirins a day to relieve her pain. Then, which came first I also can’t recall, diabetes or kidney problems? Her kidneys began to fail because of the large number of pills she ingested each day. She eventually had to have one kidney removed. Then diabetes had its effects, too. In the end her heart began to fail as well. This slowed her down a lot. And that was not good for her weight problem. Many things worked against each other. She was a sick lady.

I conclude, though, by remembering her as someone who portrayed a mild sophistication. She was in control of how she related to and responded to her circumstances. Never was she crude or off-handed. There was both a gentleness and regalness in her spirit. There were things important to her beyond the essentials of everyday. She managed to deal with practical matters but regardless of how demanding they were, she held her composure and retained her interests. She modeled to us that we are not shaped by our circumstances. We are known by how we respond to our environment. She remained true to her faith, herself and yet gave to the significant others in her life what they needed. What a fortunate person I am to have had a mother such as her. Thank You, Lord!

Don’s mother influenced him and her other six children to also follow God and allow Him to direct their lives. Through her influence in her children’s lives, passed on to her grandchildren and grandchildren and grandchildren, countless poor people and orphans have been helped and thousands of people around the world have been brought to a personal relationship with God. She loved God and was empowered by the Holy Spirit.

~ ~ ~ ~

If you also want to be empowered by God, the Holy Spirit and multiply your influence for good, I encourage you to prayer the following prayer by faith:

“Dear Father, I need You. I acknowledge that I have been directing my own life and that, as a result, I have sinned against You. I thank You that You have forgiven my sins through Christ’s death on the cross for me. I now invite Christ to again take His place on the throne of my life. Fill me with the Holy Spirit as You commanded me to be filled, and as You promised in Your Word that You would do if I asked in faith. I now thank You for directing my life and for filling me with the Holy Spirit.”

If you prayed this prayer, we at Thoughts about God would love to hear about it! We could send you information to help you discover more about the Spirit led life. To contact us, fill out the form below.

By Don Krause


A Hopi Prophecy

There was the cycle of the mineral, the rock. There was the cycle of the plant. And now we are in the cycle of the animals coming to the end of that and beginning the cycle of the human being.

When we get into the cycle of the human being, the highest and greatest powers that we have will be released to us.
They will be released from that light or soul that we carry to the mind. But right now we’re coming to the end of the animal cycle and we have investigated ourselves and learned what it is to be like an animal on this earth.

At the beginning of this cycle of time, long ago, the Great Spirit came down and He made an appearance and He gathered the peoples of this earth together they say on an island which is now beneath the water and He said to the human beings, “I’m going to send you to four directions and over time I’m going to change you to four colors, but I’m going to give you some teachings and you will call these the Original Teachings and when you come back together with each other you will share these so that you can live and have peace on earth, and a great civilization will come about.”

And he said, “During the cycle of time I’m going to give each of you two stone tablets. When I give you those stone tablets, don’t cast those upon the ground. If any of the brothers and sisters of the four directions and the four colors cast their tablets on the ground, not only, will human beings have a hard time, but almost the earth itself will die.”

And so he gave each of us a responsibility and we call that the Guardianship.

To the Indian people, the red people, he gave the Guardianship of the earth. We were to learn during this cycle of time the teachings of the earth, the plants that grow from the earth, the foods that you can eat, and the herbs that are healing so that when we came back together with the other brothers and sisters we could share this knowledge with them. Something good was to happen on the earth.

To the South, he gave the yellow race of people the Guardianship of the wind. They were to learn about the sky and breathing and how to take that within ourselves for spiritual advancement. They were to share that with is at this time.
To the West He gave the black race of people the Guardianship of the water. They were to learn the teachings of the water which is the chief of the elements, being the most humble and the most powerful.

To the North He gave the white race of people the Guardianship of the fire. If you look at the center of many of the things they do you will find the fire. They say a light bulb is the white man’s fire. If you look at the center of a car you will find a spark. If you look at the center of the airplane and the train you will find the fire. The fire consumes, and also moves. This is why it was the white brothers and sisters who began to move upon the face of the earth and reunite us as a human family.

And so a long time passed, and the Great Spirit gave each of the four races two stone tablets. Ours are kept at the Hopi Reservation in Arizona at Four Corners Area on 3rd Mesa.
I talked to people from the black race and their stone tablets are at the foot of Mount Kenya. They are kept by the Kukuyu Tribe.

I once had the honor of presenting a sacred pipe at the Kukuyu Tribe carved from the red pipe stone of Mount Kenya. I was at an Indian spiritual gathering about 15 years ago. A medicine man from South Dakota put a beaded medicine wheel in the middle of the gathering. It had the four colors from the four directions; He asked the people, “Where is this from?” They said, “Probably Montana, or South Dakota, maybe Seskatchewan.” He said, “This is from Kenya.” It was beaded just like ours, with the same color.

The stone tablets of the yellow race of people are kept by the Tibetans, in Tibet. If you went straight through the Hopi Reservation to the other side of the world, you would come out in Tibet. The Tibetan word for “sun” is the Hopi word for “moon” and the Hopi word for “sun” is the Tibetan word for “moon”.
The guardians of the traditions of the people of Europe are the Swiss. In Switzerland, they still have a day when each family brings out its mask. They still know the colors of the families, they still know the symbols, some of them. I went to school with some people from Switzerland at the University of Washington and they shared this with me.

Each of these four peoples happen to be people that live in the mountains.

In 1976 America had its bicentennial celebrating 200 years of freedom. Some of the Native people thought this was significant and they carried a sacred pipe bundle from the West Coast to the East Coast of this land.

They said that the roads of this land should either go North-South or East-West. If they went North-South we would come together as brothers and sisters, but if they went East-West there would be destruction and almost the earth itself would have a hard time. So you all know the roads went East-West.
They said then things would be lost from the East to the West and from the South to the North and that they would come back again from the West to the East and from the North to the South.

So nine years ago in 1976 from the West to East Coast of this land, from San Francisco to Washington, D.C. people carried a sacred pipe bundle by hand, on foot. My aunt had dreamt 15 years ago that people that didn’t like them would throw rocks and bottles at that pipe bundle as they carried it across the land. And sure enough that came about. But, as was in my aunt’s dream, the rocks only came so close and then they dropped, and nothing touched it.

They said a spiritual fire would be lit in the North and would come down the Northwest Coast of this land. When it gets to the Puget Sound, it would go inland. I think this, nine years later, is the gathering in the North, myself. That’s why I came here. This is it. We have the capacity to start the spiritual fire now, here. The old people long ago saw it and foretold it and I’m going to come to that.

So we went through this cycle of time and each of the four races went to their directions and they learned their teachings.
We were given a sacred handshake to show when we came back together as brothers and sisters that we still remembered the teachings. It was indicated on the stone tablets that the Hopis had that the first brothers and sisters that would come back to them would come as turtles across the land. They would be human beings, but they would come as turtles.
So when the time came close the Hopis were at a special village to welcome the turtles that would come across the land and they got up in the morning and looked out at the sunrise. They looked out across the desert and they saw the Spanish Conquistadores coming, covered in armour, like turtles across the land. So this was them. So they went out to the Spanish man and they extended their hand hoping for the handshake but into the hand the Spanish man dropped a trinket.
And so word spread throughout North America that there was going to be a hard time, that maybe some of the brothers and sisters had forgotten the sacredness of all things and all the human beings were going to suffer for this on the earth.
So tribes began to send people to the mounds to have missions to try to figure out how they could survive. At that time there were 100,000 cities in the Mississippi Valley alone, called the mound civilization: cities built on great mounds. Those mounds are still there. If you ever go out to Ohio or the Mississippi Valley, they’re tourist attractions now. There was 100,000 cities of Native people and they were wondering how they could survive.

They began to try to learn to live off the land because they knew a hard time was going to come. They began to send people to have visions to see how we could survive this time.
People came on the east coast and they went across this land to the east and they were told in the prophecies that we should try to remind all the people that would come here of the sacredness of all things. If we could do that, then there would be peace on earth. But if we did not do that, when the roads went clear from east to west, and when the other races and colors of the Earth had walked clear across this land, if by that time we had not come together as a human family, the Great Spirit would grab the earth with his hand and shake it.
And so if you read the treaty negotiations from Red Jacket of the Six Nations on the east coast of this land clear to Chief Joseph and Chief Seattle on the west coast of this land, they all said the same thing. Chief Joseph said, “I accord you the right, and I hope you accord me the right, to live in this land.” Always we were trying to live together. But instead of living together, you all know there was separation, there was segregation. They separated the races: they separated the Indians, and they separated the blacks.

So when they got to the west coast of this land the elders that were made aware of these prophecies said they would then begin to build a black ribbon. And on this black ribbon there would move a bug. And when you begin to see this bug moving on the land, that was the sign for the First Shaking of the Earth.
The First Shaking of the Earth would be so violent that this bug would be shaken off the earth into the air and it would begin to move and fly in the air. And by the end of this shaking this bug will be in the air around the world. Behind it would be a trail of dirt and eventually the whole sky of the entire earth would become dirty from these trails of dirt, and this would cause many diseases that would get more and more complicated. So the bug moving on the land, of course it’s easy to see now.
In 1908 the Model-T Ford was mass produced for the first time. So the elders knew the First Shaking of the Earth was about to come about – that’s the First World War. In the First World War the airplane came into wide usage for the first time. That was that bug moving into the sky. And so they knew something very important would happen.

There would be an attempt to make peace on earth on the west coast of this land and so the elders began to watch for this. They began to hear that there was going to be a League of Nations in San Francisco so the elders gathered in Arizona around 1920 or so and they wrote a letter to Woodrow Wilson. They asked if the Indian people could be included in the League of Nations.

At that time the United States Supreme Court had held that a reservation is a separate and semi-sovereign nation, not a part of the United States but protected by it. This became a concern because people didn’t want the reservations to become more and more separate. They didn’t want them to be considered nations. So they did not write back and the Native people were left out of the League of Nations, so that circle was incomplete.
In the League of Nations circle there was a southern door, the yellow people; there was a western door, the black people; there was a northern door, the white people; but the eastern door was not attended. The elders knew that peace would not come on the earth until the circle of humanity is complete, until all the four colors sat in the circle and shared their teachings, then peace would come on earth.

So they knew things would happen. Things would speed up a little bit. There would be a cobweb built around the earth, and people would talk across this cobweb. When this talking cobweb, the telephone, was built around the earth, a sign of life would appear in the east, but it would tilt and bring death. It would come with the sun.

But the sun itself would rise one day not in the east but in the west. So the elders said when you see the sun rising in the east and you see the sign of life reversed and tilted in the east, you know that the Great Death is to come upon the earth, and now the Great Spirit will grab the earth again in His hand and shake it and this shaking will be worse than the first.
So the sign of life reversed and tilted, we call that the Swastika, and the rising sun in the east was the rising sun of Japan. These two symbols are carved in stone in Arizona. When the elders saw these two flags, these were the signs that the earth was to be shaken again.

The worse misuse of the Guardianship of the fire is called the “gourd of ashes”. They said the gourd of ashes will fall from the air. It will make the people like blades of grass in the prairie fire and things will not grow for many seasons. I saw on television not too long ago that they were talking about the atomic bomb, the gourd of ashes. They said it was the best-kept secret in the history of the United States. The elders wanted to speak about it in 1920.

They would have spoken of it and foretold it’s coming if they could have entered into the League of Nations.
The elders tried to contact President Roosevelt and ask him not to use the gourd of ashes because it would have a great effect on the earth and eventually cause even greater destruction and a the Third Shaking of the Earth, the Third World War. I’ll get to that in a few minutes.

So they knew after the Second Shaking of the Earth when they saw the gourd of ashes fall from the sky then there would be an attempt to make peace on the other side of this land. And because the peace attempt on the west coast had failed, they would build a special house on the east coast of this Turtle Island, and all the nations and peoples of the earth would come to this house and it would be called the House of Mica and it would shine like the mica on the desert shines.

So the elders began to see they were building the United Nations made out of glass that reflects like the mica on the desert so they knew this was the House of Mica and all the peoples of the earth should go to it. So they met and talked about this.

They said that in the 1920’s they had written and they had not been responded to, so they said this time we better go to the front door of the House of Mica because things might get a lot worse.

So elders representing a number of tribes I believe drove to New York City. When the United Nations opened they went to the front door of the House of Mica and they said these words:
” We represent the indigenous people of North America and we wish to address the nations of the Earth. We’re going to give you four days to consider whether or not we will be allowed to speak.”

They retreated to one of the Six Nations Reserves in New York State. The Six Nations Reserves are keepers of the Great Law of Peace of the prophet that appeared here in North America, Dagonnorida. And this Law of Peace is still recited, it takes four days between sunrise and noon. Each year an Indian, by memory, must recite it about this time of year.

Four days later they came back and I believe the nations of the earth heard that the Indians had come to the door. And they voted to let the Indians in. They wanted to hear what they had to say. But the United States is one of five nations of the United Nations with a veto power and still they were concerned because this time the Native sovereignty was even stronger. And I believe they vetoed the entrance of the Native people.
So then they knew other things would happen on the Earth, and the United Nations would not bring peace on earth but there would be continuing and deepening confusion. And that the little wars would get worse. So they retreated to the Six Nations Reserve and they talked about this and they said the time is really getting close now, 1949.

They said, “We’re going to divide the United States into four sections and each year we’re going to have a gathering. We’re going to call these the ‘White of Peace Gatherings’.” They began to have these around 1950. And they authorized certain men to speak in English for the first time about these prophecies.

One that I used to listen to many times, over and over, was Thomas Benyaka. He is a Hopi man. I believe he is still living. He was authorized to speak in English about what was on the stone tablets and he has dedicated his lifetime to doing this. And they began to tell us at these gatherings, they said “In your lifetime you’re going to see things happen.”

It was strange when they said it in the 1950’s and 1960’s but now it seems very clear. But then it was unusual. They said, “You’re going to see a time in your life when men are going to become women. The Great Spirit is going to make a man on the earth. He made him a man but this man is going to say, “I know more than the Great Spirit. I’m going to change myself to be a woman:” And they will even nurse children. The Great Spirit is going to make the woman on the earth. She’s going to say, “I know more than the Great Spirit. I want to be a man. And she will be physically a man.”

They said “You’re going to see a time in your lifetime when the human beings are going to find the blueprint that makes us.” They call that now, DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid. They said, “They re going to cut this blueprint.” They call that now, genetic splicing.

And they said, “They’re going to make new animals upon the earth, and they’re going to think these are going to help us. And it’s going to seem like they do help us. But maybe the grandchildren and greatgrandchildren are going to suffer.”
They are making new animals. The elders talked about this. They said, “You will see new animals, and even the old animals will come back, animals that people thought had disappeared. They will find them here and there. They’ll begin to reappear.”
They said (and I know many of you are from tribes that also have this prophecy, “You’re going to see a time when the eagle will fly its highest in the night and it will land upon the moon.” Some tribes say the eagle will circle the moon. Some tribes say the eagle will fly it’s highest in the night. “And at that time,” they say, “Many of the Native people will be sleeping,” which symbolically means they have lost their teachings. There are some tribes that say it will be as if they are frozen: they’ve been through the long winter.

But they say, “When the eagle flies it’s highest in the night, that will be the first light of a new day. That will be the first thawing of spring.” Of course, at the first light of a new day, if you’ve stayed up all night, you notice it’s really dark. And the first light, you want to see it, but you can’t. It sneaks up on you. You want to see it change but it’s dark and then pretty soon it’s getting light before you know it.

We’re at that time now. The Eagle has landed on the moon, 1969. When that spaceship landed they sent back the message, “The Eagle has landed.” Traditionally, Native people from clear up in the Inuit region, they have shared with us this prophecy, clear down to the Quechuas in South America. They shared with us that they have this prophecy. When they heard those first words, “The Eagle has landed,” they knew that was the start of a new time and a new power for Native people. There was absolutely nothing strong before us now. We may do anything we wish.

In 1776 when the United States Government printed the dollar, in one claw [of the eagle], if you’ve ever noticed, there is an olive branch in this claw. They said that represented peace. The Indian elders shared with me in South Dakota that to them that represents the enslavement of black people.

In the prophecies of the Six Nations people they say there will be two great uprisings by black people to free themselves. We’ve seen one about 1964. There will be a second, more violent one to come. I’ll get back to what that means in a minute. In the other claw is 13 arrows. The founding fathers of the United States said that represents the 13 States. But the elders say that represents the enslavement of the Native people.

When the Eagle landed on the moon, they decided to print a special silver dollar to commemorate that. I don’t know how many of you noticed it. The original design showed the spaceship landing on the moon but at the last minute it was changed to an actual eagle. And in the eagle’s claws is the olive branch, but the arrows are gone. The elders said, “That’s our prophecy, we have been released.”

There was one more uprising coming for the black race of people and then they will be released and this is also going to have an effect on Native people, a good effect. There’s a whole new set of prophecies from the Iroquois people about that and I won’t have time to go into that this morning.

But we’re in that time now. We’re between the first light of a new day and the sunrise. The sunrise is about to come and when it comes up everyone is going to see it. But you know how it is in the village there’s a few people that get up early, and there are some that sleep until noon. I’m probably one of those that sleeps until noon. They said when that Eagle lands on the moon, the powers will begin to come back to us.
Within seven days of the time the Eagle landed on the moon, the Freedom of Indian Religion Act was introduced into the United States Congress. The legislation was introduced in 1969, less than seven days after the Eagle landed on the moon. Eventually it was passed in November of 1978, signed by President Carter. These are the physical manifestations of the spiritual prophecies that we have.

So he said at this time you’re going to see that things will speed up, that people on the earth will move faster and faster. Grandchildren will not have time for grandparents. Parents will not have time for children. It will seem like time is going faster and faster. The elders advised us that as things speed up, you yourself should slow down. The faster things go, the slower you go. Because there’s going to come a time when the earth is going to be shaken a third time.

The Great Spirit has been shaking the earth two times: the First and Second World Wars to remind us that we are a human family, to remind us that we should have greeted each other as brothers and sisters. We had a chance after each shaking to come together in a circle that would have brought peace on earth, but we missed that.


Tonight they were talking on the news about the sign for the Third Shaking of the Earth. I heard it while sitting in the airport after I missed my plane. They said they’re going to build what the elders called the “house in the sky”.

In the 1950’s they talked about this: they will build a house and throw it in the sky. When you see people living in the sky on a permanent basis, you will know the Great Spirit is about to grab the earth, this time not with one hand, but with both hands.
Many of you of Native background may have heard “the spirits will warn you twice, but the third time you stand alone.” We’ve had two warnings, the first two World Wars, but now we stand alone in the third one. As it says in the Baha’i Writings, there will be no-one protected. When this house is in the sky, the Great Spirit is going to shake the Earth a third time and whoever dropped that gourd of ashes, upon them it is going to drop.

They say at that time there will be villages in this land so great that when you stand in the villages you will not be able to see out, and in the prophecies these are called “villages of stone”, or “prairies of stone”. And they said the stone will grow up from the ground and you will not be able to see beyond the village. At the center of each and every one of these villages will be Native people, and they will walk as “hollow” shells upon a “prairie of stone”. They said “hollow shells” which means they will have lost any of their traditional understandings; they will be empty within.

They said after the Eagle lands on the moon some of these people will begin to leave these “prairies of stone” and come home and take up some of the old ways and begin to make themselves reborn, because it’s a new day. But many will not. And they said there’s going to come a time when in the morning the sun is going to rise and this village of stone will be there, and in the evening there would just be steam coming from the ground. They will be as steam. And in the center of many of those villages of stone when they turn to steam, the Native people will turn to steam also because they never woke up and left the village.

And this used to bother me when I was a young man. I used to ask the elders, “Isn’t there anything we can do?” And they said, well, it’s just that way that if a person does not have the spiritual eyes to see, it’s very hard to show them. Or if they don’t have the ears to hear, it’s very hard to speak with them. We wish that we could go get them all but we can’t. It’s just that some are not going to wake up. But some will wake up.

And so they say there’s going to be the Third Shaking of the Earth. It’s not going to be a good thing to see but we will survive it. We will survive it. And when we survive it, then there’s going to be another attempt to make a circle of the human beings on the earth.

And this time the Native people will not have to petition to join but will be invited to enter the circle because they say the attitude towards us will have changed by then, and people will let us into the circle and all the four colors of the four directions will share their wisdom, and there will be a peace on earth. This is coming close.

A lot of times when I share this message of the prophecies, people say, “Can’t we change it? Could we stop it?”
The answer is yes.

The prophecies are always “either/or”. We could have come together way back there in 1565, and we could have had a great civilization, but we didn’t. Always along the path of these prophecies, we could have come together. We still could. If we could stop the racial and religious disharmony, we would not have to go through this third shaking.

The elders say the chance of that is pretty slim. It seems to me like it’s pretty slim, too. But they say what we can do is we can “cushion” it. The word we use is “cushion”. We can cushion it so it won’t be quite as bad. How do we do this? We do this by sharing the teaching that will reunite us.

The Hopis in their prophecies say there will be a religion that comes here. Maybe it will be true and bring unity, or maybe it will not be true and not bring unity. If it does not bring unity, a second religion will come, and the people of this religion are known in the Hopi language as the Bahani, the people of Baha. Ni means “people of”.

When I heard about these [prophecies], none of them made any sense. Now most of it has come to pass. Last I heard on the news, they said the “house in the sky” will be put up in 1996. It was going to be put up sooner, but it’s been postponed for four years. Maybe it will be postponed again. But in not too long it’s going to go up. The earth as we know it is going to change.

Each of us carry, I believe, a sacred drop of light.
But now we’re going into the human world. The mind is going to be opened up to the radiance of our own soul and the cycle of the human beings is going to come back, and something so good is going to happen on the earth that it cannot even be described.

The elders say it in different ways. They say, there will be grass at that time when they make that circle and bring the peace on earth. There will be blades of grass that have not quite come through the earth. Even they will try to push themselves up to be part of that day when the sun rises.

You know, one time the scientist came to the Hopis and they said, “We want to take a piece of the stone tablets.” They said “We want to take the stone tablets to a scientific laboratory to determine how old they are.” The Hopis said, “We know how old they are”. Well, the scientists said, “We want to confirm it.” Well, the Hopis let them take a little piece, and they did that by the carbon dating method.

Editor’s Note: This puzzles me, as stone cannot be carbon dated. Carbon 14 is taken in by organic life until the moment of death. Then the Carbon 14 is slowly released by that organic material and the rate of release can be calculated. Half-life computations tell the age of the tested material. Stone is not organic.

They found these tablets were at least 10,000 years old, maybe 50,000. So when I say, “Thousands of years ago, there were Native people that spoke of these things,” that’s exactly what I mean. They told their children and thousands of years ago, their children grew up and told their children, and then their children grew up and told their children. And they spoke about the people that will live in this time.

And now it is us. We are the ones they spoke of long ago. They say to be alive, to come into creation and to live upon the earth at this time is a great honor.

In the cycle of time, from the beginning to the end, this time we are in now will change the purification of all things. They say this is the hardest time to live, but it is also the greatest honor to be alive to live and see this.

In the state of Washington in 1855 they signed treaties and made 22 Indian reservations. They wanted to do it before there were problems. They thought they were advanced at the time, they had learned from what had happened elsewhere. They made 22 Indian reservations and the elders spoke in 1855 and they said, “We’re going to become weaker, and you are going to become stronger, and if you wish to break these treaties, you may do so.” They said, “But there’s going to come a time when the earth itself will rise up and purify itself and this will be announced.

It will be announced by the speaking of more than 16 Great Ones on the West Coast of this land. And when the 16 Great Ones speak, the purification will have begun. There was a new [?] five years ago when Mt. Saint Helens, one of the 16 great volcanoes on the West Coast of this land, “spoke”.
The Seattle Times did a special interest story. They went over to Watson Totus and Woodrow Bill. It was Woodrow Bill’s son that made this hoop that I brought here today, my good brother Randolf Bill. They asked Watson Totus and Woodrow Bill as spiritual people of the Yakuma nation, “What does this mean?” What they said was so profound that they didn’t put it on page 16, they put it on the front page of the Seattle Times.
They said, “This means that the races and nations of the earth should slow down and come together and talk to each other.” That’s exactly what it meant. And we had four years and four days to do that.

Four years and four days later, Mt. Saint Helens erupted the second time. That was last spring, just about this time. That was our grace period. We could have still done something really good. But now things are going to speed up. Now things are going to really happen fast. Time is going to go so fast.
The more we share the Message, the more we will cushion the Third Shaking of the Earth, and the easier it will be on ourselves and others.

We are now within the purification of all things. Non-Natives call this the “Apocalypse”. The Native elders call this the “Purification”.

But don’t despair. It sounds terrible, but we will survive it. We will live through it. I don’t think there’s anyone chosen to live through it, but some people will.

So, in closing I would like to call on each and every person, regardless of who you are, young or old, Native or non-Native, to arise now, and to awake, to embrace this time, to learn everything you can about the Teachings and the Writings, to arise and awake and go forth, all the peoples of the earth.
Peoples everywhere are now receptive to the Message. This year is the year when that is really going to start, I believe, myself. Arise and awake.

There’s people out there waiting to hear, waiting to hear… waiting to hear…

Categories: The scientific sheets

The Mayan Prophecy

05/03/2012 1 comment

On Christmas Eve 2012, the sky is divided by the sun and all dry land begins to rise. The oceans respond to the tectonic shifts and the great flooding of the Earth begins. New York is washed away by a tsunami ten times greater than the Indian Ocean wave of 2004. Chicago returns to its swamp roots as the melting ice from the North Pole quickly fills the basins of the Great Lakes, causing Lake Michigan to burst at the seams. Gravity from the North speeds up the process of course, as the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans collide in Nebraska. The new era of humanity turns from dominance to survival.
Rather then the plot for a blockbuster Hollywood summer movie, this is the way the world could end according to Western interpretation of the Long Count calendar, one of several created by the Mayan Indians who populated the Yucatan peninsulain Mexico hundreds of years ago. While many Mayans still exist today, the classical period of their culture ended around 900 A.D. They studied the stars and the movements of the moon and sun, developing several calendars including the Long Count, which measures huge periods of time, along with a calendar to mark the passing of a year.

The exact date of the ending of the Long Count calendar is Dec. 21, 2012. On that date the Last Great Cycle will come to a close. The Sun God will rule the sky, the ninth Lord of the Night. The Moon will be eight days old, and it will be the third lunation in a series of six. But what does this fascinating document actually mean? How accurate is the calendar and should we pay attention to it? Many religious aficionados predicted the end of creation to be December 31, 1999, and that story had a happy ending. Do we need to prepare for an astronomical event the equivalent of Armageddon?

The Long Count Calendar measures time in cycles of years. The current cycle, or baktun, is scheduled to end in the northern hemisphere on the winter solstice in 2012. This cycle will have lasted about 394 years, and is the last in a series of 13 baktuns, the first of which started in 3114 B.C. No one knows why the Maya marked the beginning of creation on that particular date. Every year the Sun, Earth and the Milky Way galaxy align in a particular manner in the days leading up to the winter solstice. What is special about 2012 is for the first time in 26,000 years this alignment will occur on December 21, the actual date of the winter solstice. This has led to rampant speculation that the Maya believed something catastrophic will happen. The problem is that none of these predictions were made by actual Mayans, only individuals from the West who have interpreted the calendar themselves, according to Dr. Robert Sitler, the Latin American Studies director at Stetson University in Florida.

“All of that speculation is by modern Western people who are unfamiliar with the Maya culture,” Sitler said. “If you talked to 1000 Mayans about 2012, they wouldn’t know about it.

“The (classic) Mayans simply never mentioned it once. I’m dissuaded from (the end of the world theory) because they never wrote it down anywhere”

While the Maya were accurate in charting the movements of the heavens without the benefit of telescopes, Sitler said the Long Count calendar has nothing to do with astronomy but more to do with the Maya’s theory on creation. In fact, the Maya believed in multiple creations, one of which ended with the great flooding of the Earth.

while Sitler says the dire predictions of apocalypse in 2012 are off-base, he does believe that the current state of society is in a downturn. “Will all that crazy stuff happen? No,” he said. “I think there is cause for concern when you look at the environmental situation we are in. The current lifestyle on planet Earth is unsustainable.”

In fact, Sitler said the Maya people currently living in places like Guatemala, Mexico, and Belize are learning about the 2012 prediction like other people: through the media. This has led some Maya to interpret the calendar to mean their people will return to autonomous rule. Other Maya resent what they consider to be another example of the white man taking over their culture by interpreting their own documents for them. Sitler believes nothing extraordinary will occur specifically in 2012.However, he does warn that unless changes are made regarding toxic dumping, pollution and the way we treat the environment, the end is not far off.

“The trajectory is in place and we are already in this disaster,” he said. “It will collapse, it has to. It has no choice. We desperately are trying not to see the writing on the wall. I think we’re kind of in a collective delusional state.”

Dr. Vern Scarborough is a Mayanist and professor of anthropology at the University of Cincinnati. He also warns not to read too much in the doomsday prophecy of the Long Count Calendar. “This was a society governed by rules that were very different than ours,” he said. “I think you have to be very careful when you drum up support for the end of the world just because the Maya say so.”

Scarborough said that the astronomy predictions made many years ago were often used in what today would be termed “playing politics.” Only a select group of Mayan elders studied the sky, enough to predict certain events like eclipses and the movements of planets. If an elder said an eclipse would happen and he was correct, he would then use that to his advantage when pushing for additional powers or longevity. “If things didn’t happen the way they predicted, they made them happen,” Scarborough said. “When you begin predicting eclipses, that’s a pretty heavy-duty statement. You then indicate that you are responsible for shutting out the sun. It’s a power play.”

One problem with studying the Mayan writings is many people fail to place them in the context of the time. The Maya had no way of knowing certain events like modern scholars can.

“We can be more rational because we can afford to be,” he said. The Maya couldn’t, they lived in a different world. I’m not taking away from their ability to construct this marvelous calendar. There are lessons to learn from their relationship with the landscape.

“As for myth and religion, why would you think a culture over 1,000 years ago would have a better understanding about the end of the world then we do today?”

The Maya were truly a unique civilization of people. They developed their own system of writing, and were expert mathematicians and astronomers. They lived for thousands of years in an area very difficult for human beings to inhabit. They built impressive cities, the ruins of which went undiscovered for centuries buried beneath the canopy of the jungle in Central and South America. The most famous of these cities, Chichen Itza, is located about 100 kilometers west of Cancun and visited each year by thousands of tourists who marvel at the exquisite stone construction of buildings, including the Great Ball Court, The Temple of the Warriors, and the Castillo. The Maya believed a great god, Quetzalcoatl (or “birdsnake”) resided in the city and the Castillo was a monument to the feathered serpent. Each year, during the spring and autumn equinoxes, carvings of feathered serpents located on the Castillo’s northern stair create an illusion that draws thousands of worldwide tourists. The late afternoon sunlight brings these carvings to life and as the day goes on a pattern of light and shadows gives one the impression that great diamond-backed rattlesnakes are writhing up the great stairs of the Castillo.

The progressiveness of the Mayan culture convinced a certain sector of their fan base that the Maya were actually not human at all. This line of thinking follows the concept that the Maya are in fact aliens from another planet who traveled by the light of the stars. The belief is that the Mayans will return on December 21, 2012 to transform reality. One of the curators of this theory is Jose Arguelles, author of “The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology.” Arguelles believes the Maya actually are from the star Arcturus in the Pleides cluster and materialized in Mesoamerica as “galactic agents.”

Reviews of the Pleidian theory range from polite snickering to outright dismissal. Kenneth L. Feder, author of “Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology”, writes “there is no reference to archaeological evidence or any sort of scientific testing for the speculations made by Arguelles. The claims may seem laughable, but at this time in genuine human history, the joke isn’t funny. The specter of thousands of people waiting hopefully for some ‘planetary synchronization’ or ‘harmonic convergence’ to cure all of the ills that afflict us and our planet is ultimately, desperately sad.”

While many Mayan scholars dismiss the end of the Last Great Cycle as pop hysteria, the fact is mainstream culture has slowly began to discover the Mayan civilization. The popular TV series the “X-Files” ended with Mulder and Scully not being abducted by predatory aliens, but because the producers deemed the Long Calendar as the ultimate X-File. The last episode depicts the end of the world in 2012, in accordance with the end of the last cycle. Mel Gibson’s new movie “Apocolypto” will hit theaters later this year, and deals with the downfall of the classic Mayan society. The characters will speak entirely in Mayan, the same language still spoken by the remaining Mayans today. Surprisingly, Scarborough is looking forward to the movie. He believes the film could have educational value if it encourages just one person to open a book about the history of the Maya and do some research.

“My colleagues might go crazy, but I’m a little more open to things,” he said. “The Maya were amazing, there’s no doubt about that. We have to be careful how far we take their beliefs.” As for what will happen on December 21, 2012, we know the planets will align and for sure, there will a lot of individuals proclaiming the end of days. But as Michael Coe, professor emeritus of anthropology at Yale University, puts it: “No one really knows what is going to happen.”

However, if we continue to turn a blind eye to such issues as pollution and global warming, we will not need a calendar to tell us the world is ending. All we will need to do is look out our window.

NASA releases pics of solar storm hitting earth

Spectacular new images of the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, have been released by the US space agency NASA after their capture by a new time-lapse photographic technique.

NASA has taken numerous images of the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, over the years, but these are the first “moving” images combining hundreds of still images taken from the International Space Station.

 Digital cameras are providing NASA scientists with some of the clearest, highest resolution images of space they have ever seen.

One NASA scientist has turned to time-lapsed photography, stringing together digital images rather than video for images of movement in the heavens.

Earth Scientist Melissa Dawson came up with the idea late last summer when she saw images from the International Space Station taken every three seconds as the station passed along the eastern coast of North and South America.

Each of the time lapse videos requires at least 500 images to produce the sense of movement as if in a video image.

Auroras form when a “solar wind” of charged electrical particles from the Sun enters Earth’s magnetic field, accelerating electrically charged particles trapped within.

The high-speed particles then crash into Earth’s upper atmosphere over the polar regions, causing the atmosphere to emit a ghostly, multicoloured glow.

Categories: The scientific sheets

Background information-on AREA-51

22/12/2011 4 comments

  World War II The first known use of the area was the construction in 1941 of an auxiliary airfield for the West Coast Air Corps Training Center at Las Vegas Air Field. Known as Indian Springs Airfield Auxiliary #1, it consisted of two dirt 5000′ runways aligned NE/SW, NW/SE. The airfield was also used for bombing and artillery practice, as bomb craters are still visible in the vicinity of the runways. It was abandoned after the gunnery school at Las Vegas closed in June 1946.


U-2 program Main article: Lockheed U-2 The Groom Lake test facility was established by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for Project Aquatone, the development of theLockheed U-2 strategic reconnaissance aircraft in April 1955. As part of the project, the director, Richard M. Bissell Jr., understood that the extreme secrecy enveloping the project, the flight test and pilot training programs could not be conducted at Edwards Air Force Base or Lockheed’s Palmdale facility. A search for a suitable testing site for the U-2 was conducted under the same extreme security as the rest of the project.


Bissell recalled “a little X-shaped field” in southern Nevada that he had flown over many times during his involvement with the nuclear weapons test program. The airfield was the abandoned Indian Springs Airfield Auxiliary #1 field, which by 1955 had reverted to sand and was unusable, but the adjacent Groom Dry Lake to the northwest met the requirements for a site that was “remote, but not too remote”.


He notified Lockheed, who sent an inspection team out to Groom Lake. According to Kelly Johnson, “… We flew over it and within thirty seconds, you knew that was the place … it was right by a dry lake. Man alive, we looked at that lake, and we all looked at each other. It was another Edwards, so we wheeled around, landed on that lake, taxied up to one end of it. It was a perfect natural landing field … as smooth as a billiard table without anything being done to it”. Johnson used a compass to lay out the direction of the first runway. The place was called “Groom Lake.”


The lakebed made an ideal strip from which they could operate the troublesome test aircraft, and the Emigrant Valley’s mountain ranges and the NTS perimeter protected the test site from prying eyes and outside interference about 100 miles north of Las Vegas.


On 4 May 1955, a survey team arrived at Groom Lake and laid out a 5,000-foot (1,500 m), north-south runway on the southwest corner of the lakebed and designated a site for a base support facility. The new airfield, then known as Site II or “The Ranch”, initially consisted of little more than a few shelters, workshops and trailer homes in which to house its small team.


 In a little over three months, the base consisted of a single, paved runway, three hangars, a control tower, and rudimentary accommodations for test personnel. The base’s few amenities included a movie theatre and volleyball court. Additionally, there was a mess hall, several water wells, and fuel storage tanks. By July 1955, CIA, Air Force, and Lockheed personnel began arriving.


 The Ranch received its first U-2 delivery on 24 July 1955 from Burbank on a C-124 Globemaster II cargo plane, accompanied by Lockheed technicians on a Douglas DC-3.


 The first U-2 lifted off from Groom on 4 August 1955. A U-2 fleet under the control of the CIA began overflights of Soviet territory by mid-1956. The Groom Lake airfield soon acquired a name: Watertown. According to some accounts, the site was named after CIA director Allen Dulles‘ birthplace: Watertown, New York. Upon its activation, the testing facility was used with increasing frequency for U-2 testing, however that changed in 1957 when the Atomic Energy Commission began testing nuclear weapons at the nearby Yucca Flat facility.


Once the AEC Operation Plumbbob series of tests began with the Boltzmann blast in May 1957, the Watertown airfield personnel were required to evacuate the base prior to each detonation. The AEC, in turn, tried to ensure that expected fallout from any given shot would be limited so as to permit re-entry of personnel within three to four weeks. All personnel at the base were required to wear radiation badges to measure their exposure to fallout. Once the atomic testing began, the CIA U-2 testing operations were interrupted constantly due to the explosions at Yucca Flat, which were scheduled and re-scheduled frequently.


The CIA facilities at Groom Lake were always considered by the agency as a temporary facility, to accommodate the U-2 testing. As the project began to wind down, and CIA pilot classes finished their training, Watertown became a virtual ghost town. By June 1957, most U-2 testing had moved to Edwards AFB and the first operational USAF unit to receive the U-2, the 4080th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, was active at Laughlin AFB, Texas. For two years following the departure of the U-2s from Groom Lake, the base was fairly quiet, although it remained under CIA jurisdiction.


X-15 program In July 1959 USAF personnel from Edwards AFB embarked on a two-day survey trip to investigate potential emergency landing sites for theNorth American X-15 rocket plane. The survey crew received permission to land on the then unused CIA facility at Groom Lake. The crew tested the hardness of the lakebed surface by dropping a 10-pound steel ball from a height of six feet and measuring the diameter of the resulting imprint. The result was that the Groom Lake surface was considered excellent for emergency use.


In September 1960, NASA and Air Force Flight Test Center personnel at Edwards reviewed the results of the survey trip to Groom Lake, as well as other sites visited by the survey crew. The use of Groom Lake meant a reduction in support requirements as there was an airfield with emergency equipment and personnel at the site. Ultimately, they agreed to remove Groom from consideration as an emergency landing site due to difficulty obtaining clearance into the area.


The OXCART program Main articles: Lockheed A-12 and SR-71 Blackbird

A-12 during radar testing at Groom Lake

Even before U-2 development was complete, Lockheed began work on its successor as part of the CIA’s OXCART project, involving the A-12, a Mach-3 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft – a later variant of which became the famed USAF SR-71 Blackbird.

The second YF-12A Interceptor prototype at Groom Lake, Nevada (USAF Photograph)

Lockheed YF-12A 60-6934 in Air Defense Command markings 1963. The only YF-12A in ADC markings, It’s first test flight occurred on 7 August 1963 at Groom Lake, Nevada. It was extensively tested at Edwards Air Force base. This aircraft was damaged beyond repair by fire at Edwards during a landing mishap on 14 August 1966; its rear half was salvaged and combined with the front half of a Lockheed static test airframe to create the one and only SR-71C 64-17981.

As with the previous U-2 program, security requirements of the Oxcart project necessitated an obscure, secret location for A-12 testing. Despite the success of the U-2 flight tests and the OXCART mock-up radar tests, Groom Lake was not initially considered. It was a “Wild West” outpost, with primitive facilities for only 150 people. The A-12 test program would require more than ten times that number. Groom Lake’s five-thousand foot asphalt runway was both too short and unable to support the weight of the Oxcart. The fuel supply, hangar space, and shop space were all inadequate.


Ten Air Force bases programmed for closure were considered, but all were rejected. The site had to be away from any cities and military or civilian airways to prevent sightings. It also had to have good weather, the necessary housing and fuel supplies, and an eighty-five-hundred-foot runway. None of the air force bases met the security requirements, although, for a time, Edwards Air Force Base was considered. In the end, Groom Lake was the only possibility, however its short runway, austere facilities and other shortcomings meant a major overhaul was necessry prior for Oxcart A-12 testing could commence.


 Groom Lake had also, by this time, received a new official name. The Nevada nuclear test site was divided into several numbered areas. To blend in, Groom Lake became “Area 51.”


This aircraft flight characteristics and maintenance requirements forced a massive expansion of facilities and runways at Groom Lake. On 1 October 1960, Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) began work on the site, referred to as “Project 51”. Workers engaged in double-shift construction schedules for the next four years to overhaul and upgrade base facilities, and also expand the existing runway to 8,500-foot (2,600 m) as well as harden the existing runway to support the heavier A-12. In addition, a new 10,000-foot runway was constructed (14/32) diagonally across the southwest corner of the lakebed. An Archimedes curve approximately two miles across was marked on the dry lake so that an A-12 pilot approaching the end of the overrun could abort to the playa instead of plunging the aircraft into the sagebrush. Area 51 pilots called it “The Hook.” For crosswind landings two unpaved airstrips (runways 9/27 and 03/21) were marked on the dry lakebed.


By August 1961 construction of the essential facilities were completed. The United States Navysupplied three surplus hangars which were erected on the base’s north side. They were designated as Hangar 4, 5, and 6. A fourth, Hangar 7, was new construction. The original U-2 hangars were converted to maintenance and machine shops. Facilities in the main cantonment area included workshops and buildings for storage and administration, a commissary, control tower, fire station, and housing. The Navy also contributed more than 130 surplus Babbitt duplex housing units for long-term occupancy facilities. Older buildings were repaired, and additional facilities were constructed as necessary. A reservoir pond, surrounded by trees, served as a recreational area one mile north of the base. Other recreational facilities included a gymnasium, movie theatre, and a baseball diamond.


 A permanent aircraft fuel tank farm was constructed by early 1962 for the special JP-7 fuel required by the A-12. Seven tanks were constructed, with a total capacity of 1,320,000-gallons.


Preparations began for the arrival of OXCART; security was greatly enhanced, and the small civilian mine in the Groom basin was closed. In January 1962, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) expanded the restricted airspace in the vicinity of Groom Lake. The lakebed became the center of a 600-square-mile addition to restricted area R-4808N. Restricted continuously at all altitudes, the airspace occupies the center of the Nellis Air Force Range.


Althugh remaining under the jurisdiction of the CIA, the facility received eight USAF F-101 Voodoos for training, two T-33 Shooting Startrainers for proficiency flying, a C-130 Hercules for cargo transport, a U-3A for administrative purposes, a helicopter for search and rescue, and a Cessna 180 for liaison use; and Lockheed provided an F-104 Starfighter for use as a chase plane.


The first OXCART was covertly trucked to the base in February 1962, assembled, and it made its first flight 26 April 1962. At the time, the base boasted a complement of over 1,000 personnel. It had fueling tanks, a control tower, and a baseball diamond. The A-12 was a large, loud, and distinctive-looking aircraft. During the early test flights, the CIA tried to limit the number of people who saw the aircraft. All those at Groom Lake not connected with the Oxcart program were herded into the mess hall before each takeoff. This was soon dropped as it disrupted activities and was impractical with the large number of flights.


Although the airspace above Groom Lake was closed, it was near busy Nellis Air Force Base. Inevitably, there were sightings. Some Nellis pilots saw the A-12 several times. At least one NASA test pilot from Edwards AFB saw an A-12. He radioed the Edwards tower and asked what it was. He was curtly told to halt transmissions. After landing, he was told what he had seen was vital to U.S. security. He also signed a secrecy agreement. The major source of A-12 sightings was airline pilots. It is believed that twenty to thirty airline sightings were made. One American Airlines pilot saw an A-12 twice. During one sighting, a pilot saw an A-12 and two chase planes; he radioed, “I see a goose and two goslings.”


Groom saw the first flight of most major Blackbird variants: A-12, the abortive YF-12A interceptor variant designed to intercept Soviet manned bombers, and the D-21 Blackbird-based drone project. By the end of 1963, nine A-12s were at Area 51. A mock-up of the “Reconnaissance Strike-71” (RS-71) was inspected by the Air Force on 4 June 1962. The concept of a strike A-12 with strategic bombing capabilities ran into political problems from both the Air Force, which was involved with the XB-70 Valkyrie program at the time and a lack of enthusiasm from Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara. McNamara and his “whiz kids” saw no need for additional manned bombers in the age of ICBMs. In addition McNamara was phasing down Air Defense Command and saw no use for the YF-12A Interceptor. Accordingly, only the reconnaissance version of the RS-71 remained (it kept the “strike” part of the name, however). Where the A-12 was deiigned for clandestine overflights of Soviet territory, the RS-71 carried additional side-looking cameras and other sensors which gave it much greater capabilities. On December 27–28, 1962, a contract was issued to Lockheed to build six test RS-71s.


According to legend, President Lyndon B. Johnson asked an aide soon upon taking office after the Kennedy Assassination what the RS-71 was for. The aide responded, “strategic reconnaissance.” Thus, when Johnson announced the existence of a new reconnaissance aircraft, on 24 July 1964, President Johnson called it the “SR-71.” President Johnson’s announcements created an unusual security situation. Whle the USAF SR-71 project was a “White” or open project, the CIA’s A-12 was not. Its existence would remain a secret until 1981. To maintain the secret, all those involved were told of the coming SR-71 announcement and warned to keep the A-12 separate.


The SR-71 first flew at the Lockheed facilities at Palmdale, California in December 1964, and Palmdale and Edwards AFB served as the primary operation sites for that model. The 4200th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing activated at Beale AFB on 1 January 1965, however the first SR-71 did not arrive until 7 January 1966. Starting in November 1965, even as the A-12 was declared operational for use by the CIA and planning was made for its use, doubts were expressed about the cost of operating the two separate groups of A-12s and SR-71s. After a year or more of debate, it was decided on 10 January 1967, to phase out the CIA A-12 program. Although the Oxcart was gone, its USAF descendant, the SR-71, would continue to fly intelligence missions for the next twenty-two years. Finally, in 1990, the SR-71 was retired.


The A-12s would remain at Groom Lake until 1968 and occasionally were deployed to other United States bases overseas.


 The CIA’s nine remaining A-12s were placed in storage at Palmdale in June 1968. All surviving aircraft remained there for nearly 20 years before being sent to museums around the United States. D-21 Tagboard Main article: Lockheed D-21

The D-21 mounted on the back of the M-21. Note the intake cover on the drone, which was used on early flights.

Following the loss of Gary Powers‘s U-2 over the Soviet Union, there were several discussions about using the A-12 OXCART as an unpiloted drone aircraft. Although Kelly Johnson had come to support the idea of drone reconnaissance, he opposed the development of an A-12 drone, contending that the aircraft was too large and complex for such a conversion. However, the Air Force agreed to fund the study of a high-speed, high-altitude drone aircraft in October 1962. The air force interest seems to have moved the CIA to take action, the project designated “Q-12”. By October 1963, the drone’s design had been finalized.At the same time, the Q-12 underwent a name change. To separate it from the other A-12-based projects, it was renamed the “D-21.” (The “12” was reversed to “21”). “Tagboard” was the project’s code name.


The first D-21 was completed in the spring of 1964 by Lockheed. After four more months of checkouts and static tests, the aircraft was shipped to Groom Lake and reassembled. It was to be carried by a two-seat derivative of the A-12, designated the “M-21″. When the D-21/M-21 reached the launch point, The first step would be to blow off the D-21’s inlet and exhaust covers. With the D-21/M-21 at the correct speed and altitude, the LCO would start the ramjet and the other systems of the D-21. With the D-21’s systems activated and running, and the launch aircraft at the correct point, the M-21 would begin a slight pushover, the LCO would push a final button, and the D-21 would come off the pylon”.


Difficulties were addressed throughout 1964 and 1965 at Groom Lake with various technical issues. Captive flights showed unforeseen aerodynamic difficulties. By late January 1966, more than a year after the first captive flight, everything seemed ready. The first D-21 launch was made on 5 March 1966 with a successful flight, with the D-21 flying 120 miles with limited fuel. A second D-12 flight was successful in April 1966 with the drone flying 1,200 miles, reaching Mach 3.3 and 90,000 feet. An accident on 30 July 1966 with a fully fueled D-21, on a planned checkout flight suffered from a non-start of the drone after its separation, causing it to collide with the M-21 launch aircraft. The two crewmen ejected and landed in the ocean 150 miles offshore. One crew member was picked up by a helicopter, but the other, having survived the aircraft breakup and ejection, drowned when sea water entered his pressure suit. Kelly Johnson personally cancelled the entire program, having had serious doubts from the start of the feasibility. A number of D-21s had already been produced, and rather than scrapping the whole effort, Johnson again proposed to the Air Force that they be launched from a B-52H bomber.


By late summer of 1967, the modification work to both the D-21 (now designated D-21B) and the B-52Hs were complete. The test program could now resume. The test missions were flown out of Groom Lake, with the actual launches over the Pacific. The first D-21B to be flown was Article 501, the prototype. The first attempt was made on September 28, 1967, and ended in complete failure. As the B-52 was flying toward the launch point, the D-21B fell off the pylon. The B-52H gave a sharp lurch as the drone fell free. The booster fired and was “quite a sight from the ground”. The failure was traced to a stripped nut on the forward right attachment point on the pylon. Several more tests were made, none of which met with success. However, the fact is that the resumptions of D-21 tests took place against a changing reconnaissance background. The A-12 had finally been allowed to deploy, and the SR-71 was soon to replace it. At the same time, new developments in reconnaissance satellite technology were nearing operation. Up to this point, the limited number of satellites available restricted coverage to the Soviet Union. A new generation of reconnaissance satellites could soon cover targets anywhere in the world. The satellites’ resolution would be comparable to that of aircraft, but without the slightest political risk. Time was running out for the Tagboard.


Several more test flights, made from Beale AFB, California, including two over Communist China were made in 1969 and 1970 to varying degrees of success. On July 15, 1971, Kelly Johnson received a wire canceling the D-21B program. The remaining drones were transferred by a C-5A and placed in dead storage. The tooling used to build the D-21Bs was ordered destroyed. Like the A-12 Oxcart, the D-21B Tagboard drones remained a Black airplane, even in retirement. Their existence was not suspected until August 1976, when the first group was placed in storage at the Davis-Monthan AFB Military Storage and Disposition Center. A second group arrived in 1977. They were labeled “GTD-21Bs” (GT stood for ground training).


Davis-Monthan is an open base, with public tours of the storage area at the time, so the odd-looking drones were soon spotted and photos began appearing in magazines. Speculation about the D-21Bs circulated within aviation circles for years, and it was not until 1982 that details of the Tagboard program were released. However, it was not until 1993 that the B-52/D-21B program was made public. That same year, the surviving D-21Bs were released to museums.


Foreign technology evaluation Main article: Tonopah Test Range Airport

HAVE FERRY, the second of two MiG-17F “Fresco”s loaned to the United States byIsrael in 1969.

HAVE DOUGHNUT, (MiG-21F-13) flown by United States Navy and Air Force Systems Command during its 1968 exploitation.

During the Cold War, one of the missions carried out by the United States was the test and evaluation of captured Soviet fighter aircraft.


 Beginning in the late 1960s, and for several decades, Area 51 played host to an assortment of Soviet-built aircraft. Under the HAVE DOUGHNUTHAVE DRILL and HAVE FERRY programs, the first MiGs flown in the United States, were used to evaluate the aircraft in performance and technical capabilities, as well as in operational capability, pitting the types against U.S. fighters.


This was not a new mission, as testing of foreign technology by the USAF began during World War II. After the war, testing of acquired foreign technology was performed by the Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC, which became very influential during the Korean War), under the direct command of the Air Materiel Control Department. In 1961 ATIC became the Foreign Technology Division (FTD), and was reassigned to Air Force Systems Command. ATIC personnel were sent anywhere where foreign aircraft could be found. The focus of Air Force Systems Command limited the use of the fighter as a tool with which to train the front line tactical fighter pilots.


 Air Force Systems Command recruited its pilots from the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, who were usually graduates from various test pilot schools. Tactical Air Command selected its pilots primarily from the ranks of the Weapons School graduates.


In August 1966, Iraqi Air Force fighter pilot Captain Munir Redfa defected, flying his MiG-21 toIsrael after being ordered to attack Iraqi Kurd villages with napalm. His aircraft was transferred to Nevada within a month. In 1968 the US Air Force and Navy jointly formed a project known as Have Donut in which Air Force Systems Command, Tactical Air Command, and the U.S. Navy’s Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) flew this acquired Soviet made aircraft in simulated air combat training.


 Because U.S. possession of the MiG-21 was, itself, secret, it was tested at Groom Lake. A joint air force-navy team was assembled for a series of dogfight tests.


Comparisons between the F-4 and the MiG-21 indicated that, on the surface, they were evenly matched. But air combat was not just about technology. In the final analysis, it was the skill of the man in the cockpit. The Have Doughnut tests showed this most strongly. When the Navy or Air Force pilots flew the MiG-21, the results were a draw; the F-4 would win some fights, the MiG-21 would win others. There were no clear advantages. The problem was not with the planes, but with the pilots flying them. The pilots would not fly either plane to its limits. One of the Navy pilots was Marland W. “Doc” Townsend, then commander of VF-121, the F-4 training squadron at NAS Miramar. He was an engineer and a Korean War veteran and had flown almost every navy aircraft. When he flew against the MiG-21, he would outmaneuver it everytime. The Air Force pilots would not go vertical in the MiG-21. The Have Doughnut project officer was Tom Cassidy, a pilot with VX-4, the Navy’s Air Development Squadron at Point Mugu. He had been watching as Townsend “waxed” the air force MiG 21 pilots. Cassidy climbed into the MiG 21 and went up against Townsend’s F-4. This time the result was far different. Cassidy was willing to fight in the vertical, flying the plane to the point where it was buffeting, just above the stall. Cassidy was able to get on the F-4’s tail. After the flight, they realized the MiG-21 turned better than the F-4 at lower speeds. The key was for the F-4 to keep its speed up. What had happened in the sky above Groom Lake was remarkable. An F-4 had defeated the MiG 21; the weakness of the Soviet plane had been found. Further test flights confirmed what was learned. It was also clear that the MiG-21 was a formidable enemy. United States pilots would have to fly much better than they had been to beat it. This would require a special school to teach advanced air combat techniques.


On August 12, 1968, two Syrian air force lieutenants, Walid Adham and Radfan Rifai, took off in a pair of MiG-17Fs on a training mission. They lost their way and, believing they were over Lebanon, landed at the Beset Landing Field in northern Israel. (One version has it that they were led astray by an Arabic-speaking Israeli).


 In 1968 these ex-Iraqi MiG-17s were transferred from Israeli stocks were added to the operation. These aircraft were given USAF designations and fake serial numbers so that they may be identified in DOD standard flight logs. As in the earlier program, a small group of Air Force and Navy pilots conducted mock dogfights with the MiG-17s. Selected instructors from the Navy’s Top Gun school at NAS Miramar, California, were chosen to fly against the MiGs for familiarization purposes.


 Very soon, the MiG-17’s shortcomings became clear. It had an extremely simple, even crude, control system which lacked the power-boosted controls of American aircraft. The F-4’s twin engines were so powerful it could accelerate out of range of the MiG-17’s guns in thirty seconds. It was important for the F-4 to keep its distance from the MiG 17. As long as the F-4 was one and a half miles from the MiG-17, it was outside the reach of the Soviet fighter’s guns, but the MiG was within reach of the F-4’s missiles.


The data from the Have Doughnut and Have Drill tests were provided to the newly formed Top Gun school at NASA Miramar. By 1970, the Have Drill program was expanded; a few selected fleet F-4crews were given the chance to fight the MiGs. The most important result of Project Have Drill is that no Navy pilot who flew in the project defeated the [MiG 17] Fresco in the first engagement The Have Drill dogfights were by invitation only. The other pilots based at Nellis Air Force Base were not to know about the U.S.-operated MiGs. To prevent any sightings, the airspace above the Groom Lake range was closed. On aeronautical maps, the exercise area was marked in red ink. The forbidden zone became known as “Red Square.


During the remainder of the Vietnam War, the Navy kill ratio climbed to 8.33 to 1. In contrast, the Air Force rate improved only slightly to 2.83 to 1. The reason for this difference was Top Gun. The navy had revitalized its air combat training, while the Air Force had stayed stagnant. Most of the Navy MiG kills were by Top Gun graduates, In May 1973, Project Have Idea was formed which took over from the older Have Donut, Have Ferry and Have Drill projects and the project was transferred to the Tonopah Test Range Airport. At Tonopah testing of foreign technology aircraft continued and expanded throughout the 1970s and 1980s.


Area 51 also hosted another foreign materiel evaluation program called HAVE GLIB. This involved testing Soviet tracking and missile control radar systems. A complex of actual and replica Soviet-type threat systems began to grow around “Slater Lake”, a mile northwest of the main base, along with an acquired Soviet “Barlock” search radar placed at Tonopah Air Force Station. They were arranged to simulate a Soviet-style air defense complex.


The Air Force began funding improvements to Area 51 in 1977 under project SCORE EVENT. In 1979, the CIA transferred jurisdiction of the Area 51 site to the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, California. Mr. Sam Mitchell, the last CIA commander of Area 51, relinquished command to USAF Lt. Col. Larry D. McClain.


Have Blue/F-117 program Main articles: Lockheed Have BlueLockheed F-117 Nighthawk, and Tonopah Test Range Airport The Lockheed Have Blue prototype stealth fighter (a smaller proof-of-concept model of the F-117 Nighthawk) first flew at Groom in December 1977.


In 1978, the Air Force awarded a full-scale development contract for the F-117 to Lockheed Corporation’s Advanced Development Projects. On 17 January 1981 the Lockheed test team at Area 51 accepted delivery of the first full Scale Development (FSD) prototype #79-780, designated YF-117A.


 At 6:05 AM on June 18, 1981 Lockheed Skunk Works test pilot Hal Farley lifted the nose of YF-117A #79-780 off the runway of Area 51.


Meanwhile, Tactical Air Command (TAC) decided to set up a group-level organization to guide the F-117A to an initial operating capability. That organization became the 4450th Tactical Group (Initially designated “A Unit”), which officially activated on 15 October 1979 at Nellis AFB, Nevada, although the group was physically located at Area 51. The 4450th TG also operated the A-7D Corsair II as a surrogate trainer for the F-l17A, and these operations continued until 15 October 1982 under the guise of an avionics test mission.


Flying squadrons of the 4450th TG were the 4450th Tactical Squadron (Initially designated “I Unit”) activated on 11 June 1981, and 4451st Tactical Squadron (Initially designated “P Unit”) on 15 January 1983. The 4450th TS, stationed at Area 51, was the first F-111A squadron, while the 4451st TS was stationed at Nellis AFB and was equipped with A-7D Corsair IIs painted in a dark motif, tail coded “LV”. Lockheed test pilots put the YF-117 through its early paces. A-7Ds was used for pilot training before any F-117A’s had been delivered by Lockheed to Area 51, later the A-7D’s were used for F-117A chase testing and other weapon tests at the Nellis Range. 15 October 1982 is important to the program because on that date Major Alton C. Whitley, Jr. became the first USAF 4450th TG pilot to fly the F-117A.


Although ideal for testing, Area 51 was not a suitable location for an operational group, so a new covert base had to be established for F-117 operations.


 Tonopah Test Range Airport was selected for operations of the first USAF F-117 unit, the 4450th Tactical Group (TG).


 From October 1979, the Tonopah Airport base was reconstructed and expanded. The 6,000 ft runway was lengthened to 10,000 ft. Taxiways, a concrete apron, a large maintenance hanger, and a propane storage tank were added.


By early 1982, four more YF-117A airplanes were operating out of the southern end of the base, known as the “Southend” or “Baja Groom Lake.” After finding a large scorpion in their offices, the testing team (Designated “R Unit”) adopted it as their mascot and dubbed themselves the “Baja Scorpions.”


 Testing of a series of ultra-secret prototypes continued at Area 51 until mid-1981, when testing transitioned to the initial production of F-117 stealth fighters. The F-117s were moved to and from Area 51 by C-5 under the cloak of darkness, in order to maintain program security. This meant that the aircraft had to be defueled, disassembled, cradled, and then loaded aboard the C-5 at night, flown to Lockheed, and unloaded at night before the real work could begin. Of course, this meant that the reverse actions had to occur at the end of the depot work before the aircraft could be reassembled, flight-tested, and redelivered, again under the cover of darkness. In addition to flight-testing, Groom performed radar profiling, F-117 weapons testing, and was the location for training of the first group of frontline USAF F-117 pilots. Production FSD airframes from Lockheed were shipped to Area 51 for acceptance testing. As the Baja Scorpions tested the aircraft with functional check flights and L.O. verification, the operational airplanes were then transferred to the 4450th TG.


On 17 May 1982, the move of the 4450th TG from Groom Lake to Tonoaph was initiated, with the final components of the move completed in early 1983. Production FSD airframes from Lockheed were shipped to Area 51 for acceptance testing. As the Baja Scorpions tested the aircraft with functional check flights and L.O. verification, the operational airplanes were then transferred to the 4450th TG at Tonopah.




The R-Unit was inactivated on 30 May 1989. Upon deactivated the unit was reformed as reformed as Detachment 1, 57th Fighter Weapons Wing (FWW). In 1990 the last F-117A (#843) was delivered from Lockheed. After completion of acceptance flights at Area 51 of this last new F-117A aircraft, the flight test squadron continued flight test duties of refurbished aircraft after modifications by Lockheed. In February/March 1992 the test unit moved from Area 51 to the USAF Palmdale Plant 42 and was integrated with the Air Force Systems Command 6510th Test Squadron. Some testing, especially RCS verification and other classified activity was still conducted at Area 51 throughout the operational lifetime of the F-117. The recently inactivated (2008) 410th Flight Test Squadron traces its roots, if not its formal lineage to the 4450th TG R-unit.


Later operations Since the F-117 became operational in 1983, operations at Groom Lake have continued. The base and its associated runway system were expanded.


 In 1995, the federal government expanded the exclusionary area around the base to include nearby mountains that had hitherto afforded the only decent overlook of the base, prohibiting access to 3,972 acres (16.07 km


) of land formerly administered by theBureau of Land Management.


United States military aircraft likely have been flown against Soviet-type radar systems and the Dynamic Coherent Measurement System (DYCOMS). The airborne RCS range likely has been used to measure the L.O. characteristics of all known stealth aircraft from the F-117A to the B-2 Spirit and F-22 Raptor.


Over the past 20 years since the end of F-117A testing, the base has been expanded with new facilities, and a new main runway being built in the 1990s. Ongoing projects at Area 51 may include stealth aircraft development, weapons development, unmanned aerial vehicles, and avionics testing. Workers toil in relative isolation and inhospitable conditions at the site to prove revolutionary technologies and enhance the readiness of today’s warfighter and support national requirements.


Commuter service is provided along Groom Lake Road by a bus, catering to a small number of employees living in several small communities beyond the NTS boundary (although it is not clear whether these workers are employed at Groom or at other facilities in the NTS). The bus travels Groom Lake Road and stops at Crystal SpringsAsh Springs, and Alamo, and parks at the Alamo courthouse overnight.

An article took from wikipedia about AREA-51!!

05/12/2011 2 comments

This article is about the U.S. Air Force installation in Nevada. For other uses, see Area 51 (disambiguation).

Area 51

Wfm area 51 landsat geocover 2000.jpg

This satellite image of Area 51 shows dryGroom Lake just northeast of the site.



Airport type



United States Government


United States Air Force


Southern NevadaUnited States

Elevation AMSL

4,462 ft / 1,360 m


37°14′06″N 115°48′40″W



































Area 51 is a military base, and a remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base. It is located in the southern portion of Nevada in the western United States, 83 miles (133 km) north-northwest of downtown Las Vegas. Situated at its center, on the southern shore of Groom Lake, is a large military airfield. The base’s primary purpose is to support development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems.[1][2] The base lies within the United States Air Force‘s vast Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), formerly called the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Although the facilities at the range are managed by the 99th Air Base Wing at Nellis Air Force Base, the Groom facility appears to be run as an adjunct of the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) at Edwards Air Force Base in theMojave Desert, around 186 miles (300 km) southwest of Groom, and as such the base is known as Air Force Flight Test Center (Detachment 3).[3][4] Though the name Area 51 is used in official CIA documentation,[5] other names used for the facility include Dreamland, Paradise Ranch,[6][7] Home Base, Watertown Strip, Groom Lake,[8]and most recently Homey Airport.[9] The area is part of the Nellis Military Operations Area, and the restricted airspace around the field is referred to as (R-4808N),[10] known by the military pilots in the area as “The Box” or “the Container”.[11] The facility is not a conventional airbase, as frontline operational units are not normally deployed there. It instead appears to be used for highly classified military/defense Special Access Programs (SAP), which are unacknowledged publicly by the government, military personnel, and defense contractors. Its mission may be to support the development, testing, and training phases for new aircraft weapons systems or research projects. Once these projects have been approved by the United States Air Force or other agencies such as the CIA, and are ready to be announced to the public, operations of the aircraft are then moved to a normal air force base. The intense secrecy surrounding the base, the very existence of which the U.S. government did not even acknowledge until July 14, 2003,[12] has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy theoriesand a central component to unidentified flying object (UFO) folklore.[7][13]

Contents [hide]

U.S. government’s positions on Area 51

A letter from the USAF replying to a query about Area 51

CIA document from 1967 referring to Area 51

The federal government explicitly concedes (in various court filings and government directives) that the USAF has an “operating location” near Groom Lake, but does not provide any further information. Unlike much of the Nellis range, the area surrounding the lake is permanently off-limits both to civilian and normal military air traffic. Radar stations protect the area, and unauthorized personnel are quickly expelled. Even military pilots training in the NAFR risk disciplinary action if they stray into the exclusionary “box” surrounding Groom’s airspace.[13][14]

A montage of available USGS satellite photography showing southern Nevada. The NTS and the surrounding lands are visible; the NAFR and neighboring land has been removed

Area 51 border and warning sign stating that “photography is prohibited” and that “use of deadly force is authorized” under the terms of the 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act. A government vehicle is parked on the hilltop; from there, security agents observe the approach to Groom Lake.

Perimeter security is provided by uniformed private security guards working for EG&G‘s security subcontractor Wackenhut,[15] who patrol in HumveesSUVs, and pickup trucks. The guards are armed with M16s, but no violent encounters with Area 51 observers have been reported; instead, the guards generally follow visitors near the perimeter and radio for the Lincoln County Sheriff. Deadly force is authorized if violators who attempt to breach the secured area fail to heed warnings to halt. Fines of around $600 seem to be the normal course of action, although some visitors and journalists report receiving follow-up visits from FBI agents. Some observers have been detained on public land for pointing camera equipment at the base. Surveillance is supplemented using buried motion sensors.[16] The base does not appear on public U.S. government maps;[17] the USGS topographic map for the area only shows the long-disused Groom Mine.[18] A civil aviation chart published by the Nevada Department of Transportationshows a large restricted area,[19] but defines it as part of the Nellis restricted airspace. The official aeronautical navigation charts for the area show Groom Lake but omit the airport facilities.[20] Similarly the National Atlas page showing federal lands in Nevada[21] does not distinguish between the Groom block and other parts of the Nellis range. Although officially declassified, the original film taken by U.S. Corona spy satellitein the 1960s has been altered prior to declassification; in answer to freedom of information queries, the government responds that these exposures (which map to Groom and the entire NAFR) appear to have been destroyed.[22] Terra satellite images (which were publicly available) were removed from web servers (including Microsoft‘s TerraServer-USA) in 2004,[23] and from the monochrome 1 m resolution USGS data dump made publicly available. NASA Landsat 7 images are still available (these are used in the NASA World Wind). Higher resolution (and more recent) images from other satellite imagery providers (including Russian providers and the IKONOS) are commercially available. These show, in considerable detail, the runway marking, base facilities, aircraft, and vehicles. Although federal property within the base is exempt from state and local taxes, facilities owned by private contractors are not. Area 51 researcher Glenn Campbell claimed in 1994 that the base only declares a taxable value of $2 million to the Lincoln County tax assessor, who is unable to enter the area to perform an assessment.[24] When documents that mention the NTS and operations at Groom are declassified, mentions of Area 51 and Groom Lake are routinely redacted. One notable exception is a 1967 memo from CIA director Richard Helms regarding the deployment of three OXCART aircraft from Groom to Kadena Air Base to perform reconnaissance over North Vietnam. Although most mentions of OXCART’s home base are redacted in this document, as is a map showing the aircraft’s route from there to Okinawa, the redactor appears to have missed one mention: p15 section #2 ends “Three OXCART aircraft and the necessary task force personnel will be deployed from Area 51 to Kadena.”[25] Facilities Soviet spy satellites obtained photographs of the Groom Lake area during the height of the Cold War, and later civilian satellites have produced detailed images of the base and its surroundings.

Satellite view of Area 51 from 1968

Aerial imagery shows the airfield of Area 51 having seven runways including one that now appears to be closed. The closed runway, 14R/32L, is also by far the longest with a total length of approximately 23,300 feet (7,100 m), not including stopway. The other runways are two asphalt runways, the 14L/32R with a length of 12,000 feet (3,700 m) and 12/30 with a length of 5,400 feet (1,600 m), and four runways located on the salt lake. These four runways are 09L/27R and 09R/27L, which are both approximately 11,450 feet (3,490 m), and 03L/21R and 03R/21L, which are both approximately 10,000 feet (3,000 m). The base also has a helipad.[26][27] In December 2007, airline pilots noticed that the base had appeared in their aircraft navigation systems’ latest Jeppesen database revision with the ICAO airport identifier code of KXTA and listed as “Homey Airport”.[28] The probably inadvertent release of the airport data led to advice by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) that student pilots should be explicitly warned about KXTA, not to consider it as a waypoint or destination for any flight even though it now appears in public navigation databases.[28] Road access to the facility is with Nevada State Route 375 at 37°38′03″N 115°43′10″W where an access road connects to the public highway system. The security gate and a parking facility is at 37°35′37″N 115°53′57″W about 10 miles west-southwest of the road turnoff. The gate is approximately 25 miles from the main support base along a winding road. The support base has a series of what appears to be supply warehouses, dormitories, a fire station, some water towers and a number of support buildings that are common on military air bases. A very tall tower, perhaps used as the aircraft control tower is also visible. Open storage warehouses, and what appears to be a reclamation yard is also visible. Recreation facilities include baseball diamonds and tennis courts. Several large satellite dishes, presumably for communications are also visible. A large number of white-painted, presumably government vehicles are visible in parking lots, mostly being pickup trucks, SUVs and vans. Several Boeing 737 aircraft are parked on an open ramp, presumably for transportation of workers to the base. One military aircraft, appearing to be a black-painted F-16is parked on another ramp; the black paint commonly used by the Air Force for aircraft engaged in night operations. Several black-painted helicopters are also parked on an open ramp. The base also has a large number of hangars, more than what is commonly found on a normal air base, presumably to insure operational aircraft are kept out of view of orbiting reconnaissance satellites as well as out of the intense desert heat. Approximately 15.5 miles north-northeast of the base, on a peak known as Baldy Mountain, are a series of radar radomes 37°26′58″N115°44′01″W37°27′06″N 115°44′06″W at approximately 9,400′ elevation. The types of radar at these sites is unknown, although they may be the ARSR-4 Air Route Surveillance Radar which is used by the Air Force and FAA Joint Surveillance System throughout the United States. Another series of radars of a different type are located on a ridge at 4,300′ just to the north of Groom Lake at 37°17′41″N115°49′21″W. All of the radar sites appear to be automated and unattended. Geography

Map showing Area 51, NAFR, and theNTS

Area 51 shares a border with the Yucca Flat region of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the location of 739 of the 928 nuclear tests conducted by the United States Department of Energy at NTS.[44][45][46] The Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository is 44 miles (71 km) southwest of Groom Lake.

Nevada Test Range topographic chart centered on Groom Lake

The original rectangular base of 6 by 10 miles (9.7 by 16 km) is now part of the so-called “Groom box”, a rectangular area measuring 23 by 25 miles (37 by 40 km), of restricted airspace. The area is connected to the internal NTS road network, with paved roads leading south to Mercury and west to Yucca Flat. Leading northeast from the lake, the wide and well-maintained Groom Lake Road runs through a pass in the Jumbled Hills. The road formerly led to mines in the Groom basin, but has been improved since their closure. Its winding course runs past a security checkpoint, but the restricted area around the base extends further east. After leaving the restricted area, Groom Lake Road descends eastward to the floor of the Tikaboo Valley, passing the dirt-road entrances to several small ranches, before converging with State Route 375, the “Extraterrestrial Highway”,[47] south of Rachel. Environmental lawsuit

Area 51 viewed from distant Tikaboo Peak

A closed-circuit TV camera watches over the perimeter of Area 51

In 1994, five unnamed civilian contractors and the widows of contractors Walter Kasza and Robert Frost sued the USAF and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Their suit, in which they were represented by George Washington University law professor Jonathan Turley, alleged they had been present when large quantities of unknown chemicals had been burned in open pits and trenches at Groom. Biopsies taken from the complainants were analyzed by Rutgers University biochemists, who found high levels of dioxindibenzofuran, and trichloroethylene in their body fat. The complainants alleged they had sustained skin, liver, and respiratory injuries due to their work at Groom, and that this had contributed to the deaths of Frost and Kasza. The suit sought compensation for the injuries they had sustained, claiming the USAF had illegally handled toxic materials, and that the EPA had failed in its duty to enforce the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (which governs handling of dangerous materials.) They also sought detailed information about the chemicals to which they were allegedly exposed, hoping this would facilitate the medical treatment of survivors. Congressman Lee H. Hamilton, former chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, told 60 Minutes reporter Leslie Stahl, “The Air Force is classifying all information about Area 51 in order to protect themselves from a lawsuit.”[48] Citing the State Secrets Privilege, the government petitioned trial judge U.S. District Judge Philip Pro (of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada in Las Vegas) to disallow disclosure of classified documents or examination of secret witnesses, alleging this would expose classified information and threaten national security.[49] When Judge Pro rejected the government’s argument, President Bill Clinton issued a Presidential Determination, exempting what it called, “The Air Force’s Operating Location Near Groom Lake, Nevada” from environmental disclosure laws. Consequently, Pro dismissed the suit due to lack of evidence. Turley appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, on the grounds that the government was abusing its power to classify material. Secretary of the Air Force Sheila E. Widnall filed a brief that stated that disclosures of the materials present in the air and water near Groom “can reveal military operational capabilities or the nature and scope of classified operations.” The Ninth Circuit rejected Turley’s appeal,[50] and the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear it, putting an end to the complainants’ case. The President continues to annually issue a determination continuing the Groom exception.[51][52][53] This, and similarly tacit wording used in other government communications, is the only formal recognition the U.S. Government has ever given that Groom Lake is more than simply another part of the Nellis complex. An unclassified memo on the safe handling of F-117 Nighthawk material was posted on an Air Force website in 2005. This discussed the same materials for which the complainants had requested information (information the government had claimed was classified). The memo was removed shortly after journalists became aware of it.[54] 1974 Skylab photography

Groom Lake and Papoose Lake (lower right)

In January 2006, space historian Dwayne A. Day published an article in online aerospace magazine The Space Review titled “Astronauts and Area 51: the Skylab Incident.” The article was based on a memo written in 1974 to CIA director William Colby by an unknown CIA official. The memo reported that astronauts on board Skylab 4 had, as part of a larger program, inadvertently photographed a location of which the memo said:

There were specific instructions not to do this. was the only location which had such an instruction.

Although the name of the location was obscured, the context led Day to believe that the subject was Groom Lake. As Day noted:

[I]n other words, the CIA considered no other spot on Earth to be as sensitive as Groom Lake.[55][56]

The memo details debate between federal agencies regarding whether the images should be classified, with Department of Defense agencies arguing that it should, and NASA and the State Department arguing against classification. The memo itself questions the legality of unclassified images to be retroactively classified. Remarks on the memo,[57] handwritten apparently by DCI (Director of Central Intelligence) Colby himself, read:

He did raise it—said State Dept. people felt strongly. But he inclined leave decision to me (DCI)—I confessed some question over need to protect since:

  1. USSR has it from own sats

  2. What really does it reveal?

  3. If exposed, don’t we just say classified USAF work is done there?

The declassified documents do not disclose the outcome of discussions regarding the Skylab imagery. The behind-the-scenes debate proved moot as the photograph appeared in the federal government’s archive of satellite imagery along with the remaining Skylab 4 photographs, with no record of anyone noticing until Day identified it in 2007.[58] UFO and other conspiracy theories concerning Area 51 Its secretive nature and undoubted connection to classified aircraft research, together with reports of unusual phenomena, have led Area 51 to become a focus of modern UFO and conspiracy theories. Some of the activities mentioned in such theories at Area 51 include:

Many of the hypotheses concern underground facilities at Groom or at Papoose Lake (AKA “S-4 location”), 8.5 miles (13.7 km) south, and include claims of a transcontinental underground railroad system, a disappearing airstrip (nicknamed the “Cheshire Airstrip”, after Lewis Carroll‘s Cheshire cat) which briefly appears when water is sprayed onto its camouflaged asphalt,[59] and engineering based on alien technology. Publicly available satellite imagery, however, reveals clearly visible landing strips at Groom Dry Lake, but not at Papoose Lake. Veterans of experimental projects such as OXCART and NERVA at Area 51 agree that their work (including 2,850 OXCART test flights alone) inadvertently prompted many of the UFO sightings and other rumors:[7]

The shape of OXCART was unprecedented, with its wide, disk-like fuselage designed to carry vast quantities of fuel. Commercial pilots cruising over Nevada at dusk would look up and see the bottom of OXCART whiz by at 2,000-plus mph. The aircraft’s titanium body, moving as fast as a bullet, would reflect the sun’s rays in a way that could make anyone think, UFO.[7]

They believe that the rumors helped maintain secrecy over Area 51’s actual operations.[13] While the veterans deny the existence of a vast underground railroad system, many of Area 51’s operations did (and presumably still do) occur underground.[7] Several people have claimed knowledge of events supporting Area 51 conspiracy theories. These have included Bob Lazar, who claimed in 1989 that he had worked at Area 51’s S-4 (a facility at Papoose Lake), where he was contracted to work with alien spacecraft that the U.S. government had in its possession.[60] Similarly, the 1996 documentary Dreamland directed by Bruce Burgess included an interview with a 71 year old mechanical engineer who claimed to be a former employee at Area 51 during the 1950s. His claims included that he had worked on a “flying disc simulator” which had been based on a disc originating from a crashed extraterrestrial craft and was used to train US Pilots. He also claimed to have worked with an extraterrestrial being named “J-Rod” and described as a “telepathic translator”.[61] In 2004, Dan Burisch (pseudonym of Dan Crain) claimed to have worked on cloning alien viruses at Area 51, also alongside the alien named “J-Rod”. Burisch’s scholarly credentials are the subject of much debate, as he was apparently working as a Las Vegas parole officer in 1989 while also earning a PhD at SUNY.[62] Portrayal in media and popular culture Novels, films, television programs, and other fictional portrayals of Area 51 describe it—or a fictional counterpart—as a haven forextraterrestrials, time travel, and sinister conspiracies, often linking it with the Roswell UFO incident. In the 1996 action film Independence Day, the United States military uses alien technology captured at Roswell to attack the invading alien fleet from Area 51. The “Hangar 51”[63]government warehouse of the Indiana Jones films stores, among other exotic items, the Ark of the Covenant and an alien corpse from Roswell. The television series Seven Days takes place inside Area 51, with the base containing a covert NSA time travel operation using alien technology recovered from Roswell. The 2005 video game Area 51 is set in the base, and mentions the Roswell and moon landing hoaxconspiracy theories. See also

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References General


  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x DREAMLAND: Fifty Years of Secret Flight Testing in Nevada By Peter W. Merlin

  2. ^ Rich, p. 57. Rich describes Groom in 1977 as being “…a sprawling facility, bigger than some municipal airports, a test range for sensitive aviation projects”

  3. ^ Area 51 researcher Glenn Campbell claims that AFFTC Detachment 3 is located at Groom, citing the title of a leaked security manual, the mailbox in Henderson, Nevada he believes formerly served Groom, and the NASA biography of astronaut Carl E. Walz who was formerly a manager at AFFTC-DET3: Campbell, Glenn. “Area 51 is Edwards DET 3”, Groom Lake Desert Rat, 17 June 1996; Biography of Carl E. Walz (Colonel, USAF, Ret.), NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  4. ^ Merlin, Peter W.“Black Projects at Groom Lake: Into the 21st Century”.

  5. a b Richard Helms (15 May 1967). “OXCART Reconnaissance of North Vietnam”. CIA. Retrieved 4 April 2010.

  6. ^ Rich, p. 56. Rich writes “Kelly [Johnson, the U2’s designer] had jokingly nicknamed this Godforsaken place Paradise Ranch, hoping to lure young and innocent flight crews”

  7. a b c d e Jacobsen, Annie (April 5, 2009). “The Road to Area 51”.Los Angeles Times.

  8. ^ Patton, p. 3, lists Paradise Ranch, Watertown, Groom Lake, and Home Base as nicknames

  9. ^ “Researcher offers clues on new Area 51 name”Air Force Times, 23 January 2008.

  10. ^ FAA aviation chart for the Groom area

  11. ^ “R-4808N Fixes and Janet Routes” Dreamland Resort

  12. ^ Klimczuk, Stephen; Warner, Gerald (2009-11-03). Secret Places, Hidden Sanctuaries: Uncovering Mysterious Sights, Symbols, and SocietiesSterling Publishing. p. 133. ISBN 9781402762079. Retrieved 13 July 2011.

  13. a b c Lacitis, Erik. “Area 51 vets break silence: Sorry, but no space aliens or UFOs” The Seattle Times, 27 March 2010.

  14. ^ Hall, George. Skinner, Michael. Red Flag, Motorbooks International, 1993, ISBN 978-0-87938-759-4, p.49: “It is an understatement to say that overflying Dreamland is forbidden…”

  15. ^ Patton, p. 10.

  16. ^ Poulsen, Kevin“Area 51 hackers dig up trouble”, Security Focus, 25 May 2004.

  17. ^ USGS 1:24K/25K Topo map for location UTM 11 605181E 4124095N (NAD27) (map via

  18. ^ USGS 1:24K/25K Topo map for geopoint GROOM MINE, NV(map via

  19. ^ “Airports and Landing strips, 2002”[dead link]Nevada Department of Transportation, cf section R-4808N

  20. ^ Las Vegas Sectional Aeronautical Chart, National Aeronautical Chart Office, Federal Aviation Administration (last checked 26 September 2008)

  21. ^ “Federal lands and Indian reservations”, The National atlas of the United States of America, United States Department of the Interior, document ID: pagefed_nv7.pdf INTERIOR-GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, RESTON, VIRGINIA-2003

  22. ^ “Corona image”. Retrieved 10 June 2010.

  23. ^ USGS aerial image from USGS via Microsoft Research Maps(formerly TerraServer-USA)

  24. ^ Campbell, Glenn (March 1994). “Secret Base Cheats Local Tax Rolls”. The Groom Lake Desert Rat. Retrieved 8 July 2007. “In the 93–94 tax year, the Air Force paid taxes of $65,517 on a property assessment (for “Buildings and Improvements” plus “Other Personal Property”) of $2,517,781.”

  25. ^ “OXCART reconnaissance of North Vietnam”, Memo to the Deputy Secretary of Defence from the office of CIA Director Richard Helms, 15th May 1967, p15 (the full declassified document ismirrored at Wikimedia Commons)

  26. ^ Measurements, runway state and alignment information based upon Google Earth / Digital Globe images as retrieved on 21 December 2007.

  27. ^ Jeppesen-Sanderson, Inc. (August 2007). “Jeppesen Flightstar Airport Database”. Retrieved 1 October 2007.

  28. a b Marsh, Alton K. (10 January 2008).“Don’t ask, don’t tell: Area 51 gets airport identifier”, AOPA On Line.

  29. ^ Military Airfields in WW2

  30. ^ [Mueller, Robert (1989). Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. USAF Reference Series, Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6

  31. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Peebles, Curtis, (1999), Dark Eagles, Presidio Press; Revised edition, ISBN 089141696X

  32. a b c Peebles, Curtis (2000). Shadow Flights: America’s Secret Air War Against the Soviet Union. Novato, CA: Presidio Press. ISBN 978-0-89141-700-2

  33. ^ Rich, pp. 141–144, details U2 test pilot Tony LeVier scouting the remote area near Death Valley for locations, saying of Groom “I gave it a ten plus [score]… a dry lake bed around three and a half miles around”, and describes LeVier showing the lake to U-2 designer Kelly Johnson and CIA official Richard Bissell, and Johnson deciding to locate the runway “at south end of lake”

  34. a b c d The OXCART Story, Thomas P. McIninch, CIA Studies Archive, Vol 15, No. 1, 1994, declassified

  35. a b c d e Steve Davies: “Red Eagles. America’s Secret MiGs”, Osprey Publishing, 2008

  36. ^ Rich, pp. 56–60

  37. a b c 37th TFW History and Lineage of the F-117 Stealth Fighter Organizations

  38. ^ Area 51

  39. ^ 4450th Tactical Group

  40. ^ Tonopah Test Range Airport

  41. a b c Baja Scorpions

  42. a b Pike, John. “Area 51 Facility Overview”, Federation of American Scientists.

  43. ^ Motta, Mary (23 April 2000). “Images of Top-Secret U.S. Air Base Show Growth”[dead link] “the photos … show that the area has significantly expanded since the first images were snapped of the infamous site over 30 years ago.”

  44. ^ “US Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office. United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992(December 2000)” (PDF). Retrieved 10 June 2010.

  45. ^ NTS map showing the different areas overlaid on topographic map. State of Nevada — Division of environmental protection

  46. ^ Annotated NTS map at the Federation of American Scientistswebsite

  47. ^ Regenold, Stephen (13 April 2007). “Lonesome Highway to Another World?”. The New York Times.

  48. ^ “Area 51 / Catch 22” segment, 60 Minutes broadcast 17 March 1996.

  49. ^ Rogers, Keith (4 June 2002). “Federal judges to hear case involving Area 51”, Las Vegas Review-Journal.

  50. ^ US 9th Circuit ruling on Kasza V Browner and related caseFrost V Perry, Lake, Widnall

  51. ^ “2000 Presidential Determination”. Retrieved 10 June 2010.

  52. ^ “2002 Presidential Determination”. 18 September 2002. Retrieved 10 June 2010.

  53. ^ “2003 Presidential Determination”. 16 September 2003. Retrieved 10 June 2010.

  54. ^ Rogers, Keith (21 May 2006). “Warnings for emergency responders kept from Area 51 workers”, Las Vegas Review-Journal.

  55. ^ Day, Dwayne A. (January 9, 2006). “Astronauts and Area 51: the Skylab Incident”The Space Review (online). Retrieved April 2, 2006.

  56. ^ “Presidential Determination No. 2003-39”. 16 September 2003. Retrieved 10 June 2010.

  57. ^ “CIA memo to DCI Colby” (PDF). hosted by The Space Review. Retrieved 2 April 2006.

  58. ^ Day, Dwayne A. (26 November 2007). “Secret Apollo”. The Space Review (online). Retrieved 16 February 2009.

  59. ^ Mahood, Tom (October 1996). “The Cheshire Airstrip”. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2006.

  60. ^ “S4 Sport Model – Cetin BAL – GSM:+90 05366063183 – Turkey / Denizli”. Retrieved 10 June 2010.

  61. ^ Dreamland, Transmedia and Dandelion Production for Sky Television (1996).

  62. ^ Sheaffer, Robert (November/December 2004). “Tunguska 1, Roswell 0”. Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for Skeptical Inquiry)28 (6). Archived from the original on 29 March 2008.

  63. ^ Rinzler, J.W.; Bouzereau, Laurent (2008). The Complete Making of Indiana Jones. London: Ebury. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-09-192661-8.

External links Dreamland Resort – Detailed history of Area 51General

Maps and photographs

MF Husain-died!!

Celebrated Indian artist MF Husain, who earned both fame and wrath for his paintings, died in London today after being unwell for over a month. He was 95.

Popularly known as MF and regarded as “Picasso of India“, the artist breathed his last at the Royal Brompton Hospital at 2.30 am local time. Husain had been keeping “indifferent health” for the last one-and-a-half month, family sources told PTI.

In the wake of legal challenges and death threats in his home country, Husain had been living abroad in self-imposed exile since 2006 and was offered Qatari citizenship in January 2010, which he accepted.

Though Husain had been saying that he was keen to return to India, his wish had remained unfulfilled.

Three of Husain paintings recently topped a Bonham’s auction here, going under the hammer for Rs2.32 crore with an untitled oil work in which the legendary artist combined his iconic subject matters — horse and woman — fetching Rs1.23 crore alone.

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